The Role of National Culture on Citizen Adoption of eGovernment services: An Empirical Study pp93‑106
Increasingly governments around the world have realized the imperative of providing the public with not only improved government information and services but also improved public governance, transparency and accountability through eGovernment services. However, many governments still face the problem of low level adoption of eGovernment websites. It is because the issue of eGovernment adoption is complex and multi‑dimensional in nature. In consequence, it must be carefully addressed not only from technological perspectives but also from social, cultural, and organizational perspectives. The business case for developing sustainable successful eGovernment initiatives critically depends on our knowledge and understanding of how to increase citizen adoption of eGovernment websites. A review of the literature, however, shows that much of extant eGovernment research has focused on eGovernment adoption in developed countries. In consequence, little is known about national cultural factors that may influence eGovernment adoption in developing countries. This knowledge gap is particularly apparent in Jordan. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to examine national cultural factors that may influence citizen adoption of eGovernment websites in this culturally different part of the world. We developed an integrated model by extending the technology acceptance model (TAM) with Hofstede’s national culture dimensions, which is used to evaluate the impact of national culture on eGovernment adoption in this paper. Based on survey data collected from a total of 197 Jordanian citizens, evidence shows that while two cultural dimensions: power distance and uncertainty avoidance had significant impacts on citizens' intention to adopt eGovernment, the other three cultural dimensions: individualism, masculinity, and long‑term orientation had no discernible impacts. The results also indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude are significant indicators of citizens’ intention to use state government services online.
Web 2.0 tools and applications (e.g., blogs, wikis, forums, RSS, podcasts and videocasts) as well as social markers (e.g., Del.icio.us, Technorati, Facebook and Digg) have reached government and commerce sites; however, there is still a dearth of res earch related to the adoption levels of such tools. The purpose of this research is to contribute toward filling this gap by assessing the impact of this trend on Mexican local government sites by asking the following question: to what extent have local e ‑government websites in Mexico adopted Web 2.0 tools and applications? To answer this question, the paper starts by reviewing key concepts of Web 2.0 applications in government portals. On the basis of a longitudinal evaluation of Mexican local government sites, we found that most of the websites analyzed have increased their use of Web 2.0 tools and applications; however, we also found that not all applications are equally well‑developed or used on the local websites. Web 2.0 is only in the initial stage s of adoption in Mexican government websites.
Pan‑European Services in Slovenia pp122‑131
In 2009 we conducted a study on pan‑European electronic services. The main focus was on eGovernment and eHealth. First, qualitative interviews were performed to determine key areas of priority and essential problems in this area; for a small country suc
Predictive Analytics in the Public Sector: Using Data Mining to Assist Better Target Selection for Audit pp132‑140
Revenue, the Irish Tax and Customs Authority, has been developing the use of data mining techniques as part of a process of putting analytics at the core of its business processes. Recent data mining projects, which have been piloted successfully, have de veloped predictive models to assist in the better targeting of taxpayers for possible non‑compliance/ tax evasion, and liquidation. The models aim, for example, to predict the likelihood of a case yielding in the event of an intervention, such as an audit . Evaluation cases have been worked in the field and the hit rate was approximately 75%. In addition, all audits completed by Revenue in the year after the models had been created were assessed using the model probability to yield score, and a significant correlation exists between the expected and actual outcome of the audits. The models are now being developed further, and are in full production in 2011. Critical factors for model success include rigorous statistical analyses, good data quality, softwar e, teamwork, timing, resources and consistent case profiling/ treatments. The models are developed using SAS Enterprise Miner and SAS Enterprise Guide. This work is a good example of the applicability of tools developed for one purpose (e.g. Credit Scori ng for Banking and Insurance) having multiple other potential applications. This paper shows how the application of advanced analytics can add value to the work of Tax and Customs authorities, by leveraging existing data in a robust and flexible way to r educe costs by better targeting cases for interventions. Analytics can thus greatly support the business to make better‑informed decisions.
Collaborative Network Analysis of two eGovernment Conferences: Are we Building a Community? pp141‑151
In the last two decades, eGovernment research maturated into an active scientific field with a number of publication venues, many of them taking form of regular annual conferences. In this paper, we address the central question of whether the active resea
A Multi‑Level Framework for ICT‑Enabled Governance: Assessing the Non‑Technical Dimensions of 'Government Openness' pp152‑165
This paper proposes an interpretative framework which aims to provide a systemic perspective and an instrument to elicit the links between Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and governance, outlining the various challenges that this poses . In particular, it discusses the multiple dimensions of governance and identifies the public value drivers underpinning the conceptual and measurement framework proposed. In doing so the paper focuses on the 'openness' of governance mechanisms through it s interoperability dimension. It considers state‑of‑the‑art contributions at both academic and practitioner level and it also looks at how the proposed framework can be applied to the evaluation of two case studies at cross‑border, and national‑city level in Europe. Interoperability in fact is predominantly seen as an instrument for enabling cross‑border collaboration between public administrations within and between different Member States. Many initiatives and projects have been promoted and carried out during the last decade resulting in a growing number of potentially reusable best practices and benchmarks. Nevertheless, the complexity and volume of resulting project outcomes represent a challenge for effective exploitation of the results in other ini tiatives and intervention contexts. Moreover, despite the recognition of interoperability as a multi‑faceted concept (i.e. technological, organizational, and semantic), it seems to be mainly the technological aspects of interoperability that emerge from the available project results. The paper concludes outlining indications for future research and in particular on interoperability as a key driver for ICT‑enabled governance. Interoperability is found to play a strategic role in the delivery of e‑Governm ent services to local and national communities within the EU. Moreover, its significance is expected to increase over the next few years, especially in terms of how it supports emerging city governance models and acts as the backbone of communications at a pan‑European, national and local level.
Determinants of eGovernment Maturity in the Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe pp166‑182
Our research focuses on the possible determinants of eGovernment (E‑gov) maturity in the Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe (TEECE). E‑gov maturity, in this research, refers to the growth levels in a country’s online services and its citizens’ online participation in governance. Our study of the extant literature indicated that few have discussed the determinants of E‑gov maturity in TEECE. Studies from differing parts of the world are needed for theory development. Building on a prior framework, we used the contingency theory and the resource‑based view perspective to guide our discourse. In particular, we examined the relationships between macro‑environmental factors such as national wealth, technological infrastructure, rule of law, and so forth on E‑gov maturity. A 5‑year panel data of 16 TECEE selected from two main groupings was used for analysis in conjunction with structural equation modeling technique; the data consisted of 80 observations or data points. The data analysis underscored the relevance of such factors as technological infrastructure, rule of law, and human capital development as possible determinants of E‑gov maturity in TEECE. National wealth was found to be an enabler in the research conceptualization. The implications of our study’s findings for research and policy making are discussed.
Keywords: Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe, TECEE, eGovernment, E-gov, eGov maturity, contingency theory, resource-based view, structural equation modeling
Key issues to make Thailand more dynamic, competitive and prepared for ASEAN economic integration are the implementation of Internal Smart with eGovernment, International Smart with intergovernmental processes and overcoming language barriers. As a first step towards internal smart or being a smart society, eGovernment has been implementing since 2000 in order to improve government services, transactions and interactions with citizens and business. Since 2007, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology has been developing the Thailand eGovernment Interoperability Framework (TH e‑GIF) as guidelines for transformation to connected government. However, the transformation has been slow for six main reasons: lack of national data standards and standard governance body, lack of clear understanding about common processes across all involved stakeholders, lack of best practices and knowledge sharing in implementation, lack of data quality and data collection resources, lack of laws and regulations in data sharing and absence of a proactive mindset. The challenges are how to accelerate connected government and push forward to the connected ASEAN. This work focuses on three main activities: analyzing the gaps and prioritizing the need of information exchange, providing systematic approach for data standardization as well as developing a roadmap for moving towards a smart government with smart health, smart education, smart agriculture, smart tourism, smart trade and smart energy by 2015. Using best practices and the road map, the creation of connected government and connection to ASEAN can be pursued in a strategic and rapid manner. Moreover, secure e‑transactions with supportive laws, science, technologies and innovation are also key factors for ec onomic growth sustainability and community well‑being enhancement.
Keywords: data standardization, TH e-GIF, connected government, connected ASEAN, data landscape, information logistic, ontology based information exchange, connected government roadmap
As we globally enter a period of shifting economic fortunes and austerity measures, public service bodies continue to look to make provision more effective and efficient. In this context, such organisations look at service provision, making judgements on the value, type, and location of such provision. Inevitably questions arise as to whether particular aspects of provision can operate differently or be served through different channels at lower cost (saved either through cost of service or efficiency sa vings from doing things better). Questions arise about whether savings are possible, and what opportunities are offered through revision of service. Citizens are also becoming more demanding over service provision, recognising government wastage and dema nding service reform that best makes use of the public purse. The aim of this paper is to detail research findings from a project designed to discover the scope for channel shift (principally migrating users from mediated to self‑help solutions) within local government services. The research was carried out on behalf of a group consisting of regional and local governmental public bodies including nine councils and the local area police force. The research consisted of four defined stages: identification from within the public sector bodies of scope for shifting provision; collection of case studies related to successful switches of provision; sampling of customer groups in relation to perspectives on changes to provision; and the creation of a framework to support a business case for strategic decision making regarding channel shift. In terms of project findings, within the initial stage of the project there was no shortage of ideas related to the potential for change to provision linked to a channel sh ift. The issue was explored through Customer Service Managers with all identifying services with clear scope for change from the automation of different elements of environmental services, through a more comprehensive linking together of benefits services , to simple customer data collection. However, one of the underlying issues is the lack of accessible management data that can easily be aggregated together to support a business case for provision reform. This initial data provided a starting point for t he discovery of case studies linked to channel shift and service migration. Thirteen case studies were highlighted from the research linked to the areas identified by Customer Service Managers where reform may make a difference. This case study material p rovided a range of information about key benefits and issues with service reform in the identified areas. Following case study identification, customer perceptions on service reform were canvassed (n=197 customers at six locations) through the use of a detailed questionnaire. The results suggest that: there are concerns regarding access to e‑service provision (brought about through either lack of technology or knowledge); that there is a demand for system reform (focused on doing things the right way for the right cost); finally, that at present the most valuable local government service offered on the web is access to local information with this sometimes being difficult to find. In the final stage of the project a business case template was design ed. The business case was to better enable strategic decision making regarding channel shift. The business case is designed to enable the evaluation of requests for service channel growth with critical examination of potential success factors for the shif t of government services. Research around successful case study data also identified cases wherein success had not been achieved. Development and implementation of a business case template should enable teams to develop a better understanding of the poten tial for success or failure and indicate clearly measures needed to best support channel shift occurring.
Towards an Information Strategy for Combating Identity Fraud in the Public Domain: Cases from Healthcare and Criminal Justice pp214‑222
Two trends are present in both the private and public domain: increasing interorganisational co‑operation and increasing digitisation. More and more processes within and between organisations take place electronically, on local, national and European scal e. The technological and organisational issues related to this prove to be difficult on a local scale and barely manageable on national and European scales. We introduce the theoretical framework of Chain‑computerisation, which explains large‑scale chain co‑operation as an answer to a dominant chain problem. Identity fraud proves to be the dominant chain problem in many chain co‑operation situations. Therefore, our main research question is: how to arrive at a successful information strategy to combat ide ntity fraud in the large‑scale processes that constitute the public domain? We demonstrate the problem of identity fraud on the basis of two Dutch cases, from the criminal justice chain and the healthcare sector. These cases are taken from our chain resea rch programme in which we test empirical findings against the theoretical framework of Chain‑computerisation to derive a successful chain‑specific information strategy. In both cases, the problem of identity fraud presents a threat to the chain co‑operati on. Identity fraud has to be tackled with an approach focused on large‑scale processes and with specific person‑oriented security procedures and instruments preventing identity fraud from happening undetected. This study forms an important contribution to information science and to the security realm that still pivots only on traditional authentication frameworks that cannot cope with wrong person identity fraud. In large‑scale situations, therefore, additional safeguards will be necessary. Taking into account that the problem of identity fraud rises in many other domains and countries as well, we conclude that it is a major threat to the European society. Finally, we argue that chain‑specific information systems with random identity verification enable combating identity fraud.
Keywords: chain-computerisation, interorganisational information systems, chain co-operation, information strategies within the public sector, identity management, identity fraud