Volume 7 Issue 1 / Jan 2009 pp1‑122
Keywords: accessibility, barriers, BRAIN, business process, business rule, capacity for getting ahead, citizen participation, community building, coping and sense making strategies, developing nations, digital divide, disability, disenfranchisement, eDemocracy, e-governance, e-Government adoption, e-government readiness, Egypt, end-user approaches, e-readiness, information and communication technology, information dissemination, internet voting, IT transfer, KedaiKom, Malaysia, municipalities, policy participation, political participation, public participation, public sector, public servants, Section 508, service delivery, social and digital inclusion, social consequences, social participation, strategic planning, Switzerland, technology acceptance model, Telecentres, turnout, websites
The broad definition of metadata is 'data about data' or 'data that describe data or information'. In more specific terms, 'metadata is data about other data or objects, used to describe digitized and non‑digitized resources located in a distributed system in a network environment' (Haynes, D, p 8). In e‑Government applications it may be used, amongst other for the discovery and retrieval of government information, as well as to assist in the management of government electronic resources. In other words, metadata is the key to interoperability. This paper aims to highlight the use of metadata in e‑Government projects with a review of the most widely metadata standard used in e‑Government application (DC). Also, it will compare the work which has been carried out in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Ireland with DC, as all these metadata projects are based on simple Dublin Core metadata. Finally, roadmap for metadata development will be proposed.
Electronic Government (e‑Government) is becoming a global phenomenon that is increasingly attracting the attention of community citizens including politicians, economists, decision and policy makers amongst others. Once only regarded as a means for modernizing the public sector and increasing government productivity and efficiency, e‑ Government is presently recognized as a driver and a key enabler of citizen‑centric, cooperative, and seamless modern governance implying not only a profound transformation in the way government interacts with the governed but also the reinvention of its internal processes and how organizations carry their business both internally as well as externally while interacting with the other segments of the community. Based on the literature, it is frequently claimed that the availability of an effective e‑Government assessment framework is a necessary condition for advancing e‑Government proper implementation. The objective of this article is to develop an e‑Government appraisal framework encompassing several components such as people, technology, processes, and strategic planning. The article examines the relations and interactions of these components in an emerging e‑Government environment using a case study on an agency affiliated to the government of Egypt as a primary step in the process of testing the framework presented.
Keywords: government e-Government e-Government readiness e-readiness internet strategic planning information and communication technology public sector IT transfer developing nations Egypt
The introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into public administrations has been radically changing the way organizations cooperate and, more generally, the way to think about business processes over organizational boundaries. In this paper we describe our approach to combining business processes with business rules in order to integrate effectively single units in an inter‑ or intra‑organizational cooperation. Business rules represent the knowledge that an administration has about its business; with regard to this, they can express strategies, contracts and can influence not only staff relations, but, finally, citizen relations, as well. In other words, business rules are the core of an administration and affect either the business processes or the behaviours of the system participants. They are typically expressed implicitly in business contracts and they are embedded within the source code of many application modules. So a concise and declarative statement of business behaviour is converted into a set of programming instructions, which are spread widely throughout the whole information system. In this way, business rules are difficult to change and keep consistent over the time. For this reason, it is necessary to reengineer the system in order to logically and perhaps physically externalize rules from the application code. In our proposed approach, we describe a cooperation as a collection of tasks combined in certain ways according to the organization logic specified by business rules. Our rule‑driven methodology has the goal to make the business process design more adaptable to the changes of internal or external environment.
As a consequence of the advance of information technology into the realm of public administration, we are now faced with a potential increase in efficiency of a scope and power not previously seen. The intentional use of information technology to modernise the public sector goes internationally by the name of e‑Government. While e‑ Government's greatest impact thus far has been to promote customer satisfaction, its guiding spirit is more ambitious, with the fundamental reorganisation of the entire public sector in its sights. The overall purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how public administration at a local authority level adapts to impending e‑Government by considering the discourses that are manifested and how they are used to understand and legitimise electronic administration. The present study uses critical discourse analysis to shed light on those discursive orders that are revealed in the course of deliberations on electronic administration at the local government level. On the one hand, it is possible to see electronic administration as a refinement ‑ and a reform ‑ of a bureaucracy's techniques. On the other hand, it is equally possible to view it in the light of free market ideology.
Keywords: e-Government, state management, public sector, critical discourse analysis, public administration, governmentality
A Social Perspective on Implementation of e‑Government â€” a Longitudinal Study at the County Administration of Sweden pp49‑60
A longitudinal study of implementation of e‑Government at the County Administration of Sweden was analysed and discussed from a social perspective. Two interview studies at the legal and traffic departments were compared. Interviews were made with decision makers, handling officers and administrative assistants focussing on social consequences of work situations, work processes and quality of e‑services to the clients. The MOA‑model was used as a frame of reference for the study. According to the analysis, coping and sense making strategies by the respondents increased. e‑Government made demands for new competencies for employees and clients. Internal and external digital divides are social consequences of the implementation of e‑services. Management increased their focus on efficiency aspects related to e‑Government. There is a need to integrate competence of social aspects into the development process of e‑Government. The users were aware of the importance of social aspects of IT implementation. There is a need for competence development of social consequences related to IT implementation also for development personnel and different interest groups.
Keywords: Implementation, e-Government, digital divide, social consequences, coping and sense making strategies
The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the establishment of telecentres, particularly KedaiKom on community building in Malaysia. KedaiKom is one of the projects undertaken by the Malaysian government to reduce the digital divide among the population. The impact of KedaiKom on community building was viewed from two perspectives: capacity of getting ahead and social and digital inclusion. The research was conducted using the survey method whereby questionnaires were distributed to six hundred KedaiKom users, however, only 326 returned the form. In general, the users agreed that KedaiKom has improved their ICT skills and knowledge as well as their social network. Many of them felt that KedaiKom has helped improve their community well being. In conclusion, the study showed that KedaiKom does impact community building, i.e., capacity of getting ahead and social and digital inclusion.
Keywords: Malaysia, Telecentres, community building, KedaiKom, capacity of getting ahead, social and digital inclusion
Analysis of the profile and motives of internet voting users in Geneva (Switzerland) shows that the common explanations of political participation ignore a subjective â€” or affective â€” dimension of political participation. This emotional dimension is the driver of internet vote use. Coincidentally, iVoting is mostly used by citizens who describe themselves as irregular voters or abstainers. This points to invisible barriers to political participation, as these citizens do not lack resources or knowledge, but the desire to participate by the common paper‑based channels. For them, political participation is a self‑centered process. Ultimately, this reflects a deep shift in the political life, from class‑based choices to individual choices in the realm of public affairs. The present‑day common good is defined by an aggregation of individual wills.
Keywords: Internet voting, Switzerland, turnout, eDemocracy, public participation, disenfranchisement
e‑Government and Technology Acceptance: The Case of the Implementation of Section 508 Guidelines for Websites pp87‑98
This paper examines the relevance of the Technology Acceptance Model for e‑Government websites at federal government level in the United States through an exploratory research study. Various unfunded government mandates over the past several years have required agencies to create websites, put services on the sites, and make them accessible to citizens, and the federal e‑Government now includes tens of thousands of sites. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, for example, was passed to ensure e‑Government sites would be accessible to persons with disabilities. By studying the implementation of the requirements of Section 508 through a number of data collection techniques and in terms of the Technology Acceptance Model, this paper seeks to use this particular law as an example through which to better understand the processes by which government agencies adopt e‑Government requirements and the actions that government managers can take to improve the implementation of such adoption.
Keywords: e-Government, technology acceptance model, accessibility, Section 508, disability, public servants, websites
Many important forms of public participation take place in interactions between citizens. Studying these interactions is crucial for understanding e‑governance, defined as steering in the public domain. The new forms of public participations can be labeled Citizens2Citizens interactions (C2C). Citizens use the Internet to facilitate policy participation (meant to support or undermine government policies), political participation (directed at influencing political decision‑making and agenda‑setting) and social participation (to increase social capital). Attention for these forms of digital participation coincides with the rise of a new set of Web applications which are grouped under the label 'Web 2.0'. This paper is an attempt to conceptualize and categorize the wide variety of types and forms of C2C to provide a basis for a further development of this new research field. We do not claim that our exploration will lead to a final and complete description of C2C; we merely aim to present an overview of the diversity of forms of C2C initiatives that are taking place in the digital world. The argument we are putting forward is that new technologies offer new venues for participating and that these new practices will constitute both a replication of and an addition to existing offline practices of public participation. Our explorative research of C2C initiatives results in a map of political, policy and social participation. This map of C2C initiatives can provide insights in the variety of Internet practices and help subsequent researches in their selection of initiatives for in‑depth studies. Additionally, our research results in an exploration of the implications the analyzed initiatives can have for participation in the public sector.
e‑Government initially began as process where government entities developed websites and began populating these sites with information. After mastering this information dissemination aspect, government units moved toward processing online transactions. Subsequent to mastering transaction processing, governments moved across a continuum and engaged citizens online in a participatory framework; that is, offering Internet applications that connect citizens with public administrators, decision‑makers, and perhaps elected officials. While the subsequent progression and potential benefits of e‑Government applications are without limits, there are a number of barriers that impede the implementation of such applications. Using survey data collected by the International CityCounty Management Association (ICMA), this paper examines the factors that most impede the adoption of e‑Government applications. Central research questions include: what are the differences between municipalities that have comprehensive e‑ Government platforms and those that do not, and to what extent do certain barriers explain these differences? Multiple regression results indicate that e‑Government adoption is a function of financial, technical, and human resources. Holding all other factors constant, municipalities with higher operating budgets, more full‑time IT staff, and technical resources are more likely to implement a comprehensive e‑Government platform. Political support is a key and fairly robust determinant of municipal e‑Government adoption as well.
Keywords: e-Government adoption, municipalities, barriers, service delivery, information dissemination, citizen participation