Abstract: E‑government (e‑gov) has become indispensable for government modernization. Its success, however, is contingent upon its adoption by the intended users. This research used an extended version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Tech nology (UTAUT) model to investigate a number of factors that are believed to affect the Kuwaiti citizens adoption of the traffic violation e‑payment system (TVEPS). Effort expectancy and social influence were found to influence the use intention, and users Internet experience moderated such a relationship. However, performance expectancy did not influence the intention to use TVEPS. Facilitating condition, trust and use intention were found to influence the actual use of the system. While gender mod erated the relationship between facilitating conditions and actual use of the system, awareness moderated the relationship of trust and use intention with the actual use of the system. These findings and their implications are further discussed in the pap er.
Keywords: Keywords: UTAUT, e-government, Effort Expectancy, Performance Expectancy, Social Influence, Facilitating Conditions, Trust, Kuwait
Abstract: This study summarizes and analyses the demographic, socio‑economic, and geographic factors affecting electronic tax filing (e‑filing) in the United States for the years 1999, and 2004 2007 and the growth in e‑filing between 1999 and 2007. Beyo nd the descriptive analysis, two issues related to electronic tax filing are target of further analysis: First, the variables having a positive impact on e‑filing rates and e‑filing growth are analysed. Second, because a more detailed look at state and co unty data indicates high variability within and between states, some demographic, socio‑economic, and geographic variables are examined in more detail. This second question addresses the possibility that e‑filing just like other initiatives involving el ectronic media could increase the digital gap. We use zip‑code level e‑filing information and county level demographic, income and unemployment data for each of the years in question. Our findings indicate significant variation in e‑filing rates across and within states, and rapid growth over time. E‑filing rates are found to be lower in rural counties, counties with low population size, counties with a lower share of females, counties with a higher share of Hispanics and Asians, and counties with a hig her share of the elderly population. Surprisingly, educational attainment is negatively correlated with e‑filing rate and growth in e‑filing.
Keywords: Keywords: e-government, electronic tax filing rates, electronic tax filing growth, technology acceptance, socio-economic, demographic, and geographic factors
Abstract: E‑government has been developing across the world during last ten‑fifteen years remarkably fast. The most developed countries have already demonstrated significant progress in e‑government development. Developing countries are also making effort s to overcome various obstacles in their e‑government journey. Many research papers and survey reports have been published in this domain. However, there is a lack of research on e‑government development in Central Asia, particularly on e‑government progr ess and issues in Kyrgyzstan. The objective of this research is to examine how e‑government helps to enhance government processes in Kyrgyzstan with a major focus on improving public service delivery. This paper investigates the official web sites of the Kyrgyz Government ministries and agencies and the extent to which they provide online transactional services to the public and other organizations and analyzes their efforts in engaging citizens in the processes of governance.
Keywords: Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, government web site, online service, transactional online service, public sector
E‑government Use and Citizen Empowerment: Examining the Effects Of Online Information On Political Efficacy pp52‑64
Abstract: Although the government has made enormous investments in the area of e‑government, whether these efforts do indeed promote greater citizen participation is still being debated between those optimistic and those pessimistic about ICTs potential to change the way people interact with government. This study hopes to bring forth a new perspective, by injecting new empirical evidence, to revitalize discussions between opposing views on ICTs, by arguing that information technology could elevate poli tical efficacy and indirectly enhance political participation. This research attempts to answer the following questions: Does e‑government use increase citizens political efficacy? What are the different influences e‑government mechanisms have on int ernal and external Internet political efficacy?. A regression analysis was used as the method for analyzing data collected from a telephone survey of all Taiwanese citizens above the age of twelve, and with experiences in the use of e‑government services . The results show that factors which affect internal and external Internet political efficacy are different. The enhancement of external Internet political efficacy factors are not directly related to the e‑government mechanism, but are related to citize ns trust in e‑government, political trust, and external political efficacy. Whereas information update speed by e‑government and citizen usage needs for e‑government factors, affect internal Internet political efficacy. The conclusions reached, in theor y, would provide a new angle of reflection and research for the debate on the influences of technology use on civil participation, by technological optimists and pessimists. This new angle suggests that the effects of technology use are on the perceptions and attitudes related to civil participation, and not directly related to participation behaviors. In practice, this generates another urgent reason for the government to invest additional resources in the elevation of internet information quality.
Keywords: Keywords: political efficacy, e-government, citizen empowerment, political participation, use of e-government, information quality
Abstract: Enabling people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, contribute, create content and interact with the Web is the purpose of Web accessibility. The present research aims to evaluate the accessibility of three Moroccan e‑government websites to people with disabilities. To achieve the realization of this research, we opted for the method AccessiWeb and we analyzed, following this methodology, four to seven pages in each website. The evaluation results show the presence of several problems of accessibility in each of the three websites. Some accessibility problems, found in the three websites, are relating to level A criteria, other to level AA criteria, while the rest is relating to level AAA criteria. The presence of level A criteria that are not respected, in the three websites, makes us conclude that the three evaluated websites don’t meet the minimum level of accessibility. To reach the minimum level of accessibility, recommended by the W3C, all problems relating to level A and level AA criteria should be corrected. Various measures should be then taken to make the content of these websites perceivable, operable, understandable by users and robust. Thus, to make the content perceivable by users, the necessary measures to be taken can be summarized as follows : provide text equivalents for non‑textual items, increase the contrast ratio, make time‑based media clearly identifiable, provide summaries and titles for tables, make all links explicit, indicate changes of reading direction in the source code, organize the content by the use of titles, use CSS, associate form fields with relevant labels, offer accessible versions to documents for download and make it possible for users to control flashing contents. To make the content presented within the three websites operable, it is necessary to : make the control of time‑based media and no time‑based media possible by the keyboard, give pertinent titles for links and web pages, make explicit links that open in a new window, add links that help to bypass the blocks of content and the groups of links, provide information about the documents for download, ensure that navigation does not contain keyboard traps and that the sitemap page shows the general architecture of the website. Concerning the third principle, which consists on making the content understandable by users, context changes should be initiated by explicit buttons, language changes should be indicated in the source code, the labels associated with form fields should be appended with their fields, the indication of mandatory fields should be visible and the input control should be accompanied by suggestions that facilitate the correction of errors. Finally, the respect of the last principle, relating to robust content, requires to provide for each framework used a relevant title, to provide equivalent alternatives, working without Java, for scripts, to correct errors that exist in the source code, to make all media compatible with assistive technologies, to define the type of each document, to make sure that hidden texts are correctly rendered by assistive technologies and to provide an appropriate title for each form button.
Keywords: Web accessibility, e-government websites, Moroccan websites, Moroccan e-government, persons with disability, Web accessibility evaluation, AccessiWeb method, Web accessibility evaluation methodologies, Web accessibility evaluation tools
Abstract: E‑governance is a way for governments to use the most innovative information and communication technologies (ICTs), to provide public and businesses with convenient access to government information and services, to improve the quality of the s ervices and to provide greater opportunities to participate in government activities. E‑government offers a huge movement to move forward with higher quality, cost‑effective, government services and a better relationship between people and government. Thi s paper investigates how public participant in e‑government can be enhanced in Nepal with ethical implementation of e‑government. A case study from e‑government context in Nepal was taken to study public participation, service delivery, challenges and eth ical issues. A policy network theory was applied on e‑governance policy‑making processes in the perspective of Nepal. The finding of the study was focused on good governance which includes issues of efficiency of service delivery, empowerment of citizens, transparency, and accountability. If applied effectively in developing countries like Nepal, e‑ government strategy can advance productivity in the public sector. The e‑government ethics may cover the rights and duties of bodies involved in the developme nt of information systems for public administration.
Keywords: Keywords: E-governance, public participation, e-participation, ethics, public service delivery
Abstract: This paper discusses the use of process models as an instrument to promote transparency and communication between public organizations and their clients (citizens). It depicts a way to design public services process models aiming at increasing their understandability. The design is based on a catalogue containing characteristics, operationalizations and mechanisms for designing understandability on public service process models. The use of the catalogue by process analysts and the level of und erstandability acquired by the generated models were evaluated through case studies at a public educational organization. The results show that the proposed catalogue is applicable ‑ process analysts were able to apply it in a reasonable time ‑ and that more simple process models can be obtained, adequate for process explanation for citizens/users.
Keywords: Keywords: understandability, desigining public service, organizational transparency, electronic government and democracy
Multi‑Channel Service Management in Public Sector Three Interpretative Frames Illustrating E‑government and Work Practice in a Swedish State Agency pp112‑125
Abstract: In order to deliver services to citizens, public sector agencies of today offer various types of channels for interaction. In this article we aim to develop an understanding of the reciprocal relation between multi‑channel services and work prac tice. By showing how actors at different organizational levels in an agency differ in their interpretation of multi‑channel services we have generated knowledge that is essential in multi‑channel strategy formulation. The study illustrates an example of a n agency that works actively and in a mature way with e‑government and e‑services. This qualitative case study illustrates that the top level management, middle management and the case officers need to confront and discuss their understanding of e‑governm ent and their work practice in order to reach a situation where strategies actually are influencing daily work more explicitly. An important aspect is the decision to adopt an internal or external perspective on multi‑channel service management. The resul t of this decision might be to view multi‑channel service management as a way of reaching either internal agency efficiency or external citizen benefits.
Keywords: Keywords: e-government, public sector, service, multi-channel service management, work practice