The Electronic Journal of e-Government aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government
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Journal Article

Promoting Knowledge Sharing in Government and Non‑Government Organizations Using Open Source Software: The pKADS Story  pp81-94

Tom Butler, Joseph Feller, Andrew Pope, Paul Barry, Ciaran Murphy

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 2, ECEG 2004, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp75 - 146

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Abstract

This paper reports on the development of an innovative Open Source Software solution called the Portable Knowledge Asset Development System (pKADS). pKADS is a desktop‑based knowledge management system whose purpose is to promote knowledge sharing in government and non‑government organisations, which the United Nations views a being pivotal to the inclusion of developing nations in the knowledge society. The institutional context for the development of this system is delineated, as are the system's conceptual and technical architectures. The paper concludes with suggestions for the application of pKADS and its implications in shaping subsequent e‑Government initiatives.

 

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Society, Open Source Software, e-Government, Non Government Organisation, NGO, Action Research

 

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Journal Article

A Framework for Experience Management in e‑Government: The Pellucid Project  pp189-198

Simon Lambert, Alvaro Arenas, Sabine Delaitre

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 3, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp147 - 218

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Abstract

The Pellucid project is developing an adaptable and customisable platform for enabling . experience management in public organisations. Starting with a study of the three pilot applications, a uniform framework has been developed for experience management, based on the generation of 'active hints' that are presented to the user according to working context. Working context encompasses both position in the work process and domain‑specific characteristics, typically similarity to previous cases. The paper discusses the applications and the framework.

 

Keywords: knowledge management, experience management, public organisations, organisational mobility, workflow management systems

 

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Journal Article

e‑Government: Five Key Challenges for Management  pp1-8

Kim Viborg Andersen

© Dec 2006 Volume 4 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 48

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Abstract

e‑Government holds the potential to facilitate the complementary use of information systems in government comprising both operational and strategic use. This paper argues that if this metamorphosis is to occur, managers are facing five key strategic challenges: 1) Assessing the demand paradox of e‑government. 2) Ensuring that gate‑keeping mechanisms of the street‑level bureaucrats are not eroding the dynamics of e‑government. 3) Use of IT to decrease the high labour intensity in public service provision. 4) Revisiting the employees' readiness for e‑government. 5) Building competences within government to ensure dynamic use of IT.

 

Keywords: e-government, strategy, management, demand, entities, gate-keeping mechanisms, labour intensity, readiness, competence

 

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Journal Article

e‑Administration, e‑Government, e‑Governance and the Learning City: A typology of Citizenship management using ICTs  pp213-218

Hélène Michel

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Abstract

Citizenship implies a certain model of relationship between citizens and their government. This type of relationship can be conceived in several ways. Citizenship can be presented in the form of an object to be governed in various ways. Using a two year research‑action study in the town of Vandoeuvre (France), we elaborated a typology of citizenship management using Information and Computer Technologies composed of four modes: E‑administration, E‑ government, E‑governance and "The Learning City". In the "e‑administration" mode, the citizen is considered as a « consumer of rights » claiming personalized and efficient public services. It corresponds to a government « for the people » with a strategy of citizen satisfaction improvement. The second mode, that we call "e‑government" reflects a vision of a relatively passive citizen‑agent, who responds to his duties. Based on the need of quantifying and comparing solutions, this government of the people relies on regular consultations in order to improve the policy's acceptance. In this perspective, electronic voting is the most appropriate tool, because it facilitates the communication of citizens' opinions to government, while conserving a consultative characteristic. In the "e‑governance" mode, the citizen is considered an active agent of local democracy. The citizen is now considered as a source of ideas and initiatives that provides a mutual enrichment. The e‑governance model can launch a reflection on the local government's knowledge management capacity. This could then result in a fourth type of the citizen relationship management, which would not be a government of the people, for the people or by the people, but according to the people. We called this mode "the Learning City". The logic underlying this approach would be: "learn how to learn", defining a range of possible actions, choosing the decision corresponding to the criteria considered to be essential to the success. The citizens would at the same time be actors and determinants of the rules. The role of the local officials and the corresponding ICT tools remain to be imagined.

 

Keywords: e-Administration, e-Government, e-Governance, learning organization, Citizen Relationship Management, local government, ICT

 

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Journal Article

A Model for Document Management in e‑Government Systems Based on Hierarchical Process Folders  pp191-204

Raphael Kunis, Gudula Rünger, Michael Schwind

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

Document management plays a decisive role in modern e‑government applications. As today's authorities have to face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and quality while decreasing the duration of their government processes, a flexible, adaptable document management system is needed for large e‑government applications. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for a document management model that helps to face this challenge. The model is based on two new document management concepts that extend common document management facilities: hierarchical process folders and security levels. A hierarchical process folder mainly consists of files that belong to a government process and includes all documents processed during process execution. The folder grows during execution and contains all versions of changed, existing, and added documents. The process folders can be used in a single authority software system as well as in distributed e‑government software systems. More precisely, this means that the model of hierarchical process folders can be deployed to exchange process folders in whole or in part between authorities to support the execution of distributed hierarchical government processes. We give an example how the application to single authorities and distributed systems is possible by describing the implementation within our distributed e‑ government software system. The application of security levels to documents allows the encryption of documents based on security relevant properties, e. g. user privileges for intra authority security and network classification for inter authority communication. The benefits of our model are at first a centralised data management for all documents of a single or a hierarchical government process. Secondly, a traceable history of all data within government processes, which is very important for the archival storage of the electronic government processes, is provided. Thirdly, the security levels allow a secure intra authority document accessing system and inter authority document communication system.

 

Keywords: electronic government applications, document management systems, hierarchical government processes, interoperability, document processing, e-government security

 

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Journal Article

Digitization and Political Accountability in the USA and the Netherlands: Convergence or Reproduction of Differences?  pp213-224

Albert Meijer

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

Does the use of ICTs lead to convergence? Or are existing differences being reproduced? This paper deals with these broad questions in the domain of political accountability in two countries and applies these questions to the level of agency accountability and political accountability systems. The results of empirical research in the Netherlands (a parliamentary system) and three American states (presidential systems) into the effects of digitization on political accountability are used to evaluate the relevance of institutional differences for explaining outcomes of technological trajectories. The research indicates that there are many similarities and few differences at the level of agencies. Government agencies in both countries record more data than before the introduction of ICTs, grant better access to recently recorded data. have not created technological warranties for protecting the authenticity of this information and cannot guarantee that the digital information will remain accessible over time. One minor difference between the findings is that websites were found to be more important for communication between government agencies and citizens and even within government agencies in the USA than in the Netherlands. The fact that many similarities and few differences were found supports the idea that government agencies in different countries are converging because of the use of the same technologies. Does convergence also take place at the level of accountability systems? There are relevant differences at the level of political principals. Principals in the Netherlands make little use of digital information and mostly rely on information in paper documents whereas principals in the USA extensively use digital information for fact‑finding. Principals in the Netherlands have insufficient information processing capacity to adequately process all the digital information available to them while principals in the USA generally have sufficient capacity. Principals in the Netherlands make limited us of databases for fact‑finding whereas principals in the USA, in contrast, make much use of this digital information. Overall, American principals are better capable of using digital information for fact‑finding than Dutch principals. This indicates that institutional differences in ex‑post oversight are reproduced in the information age. The relation between information and communication technologies and political institutions is ambiguous: agencies are converging whereas differences between political principals are reproduced.

 

Keywords: political accountability, electronic record management, institutional differences

 

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Journal Article

Customer Orientation in e‑Government Project Management: a Case Study  pp1-10

Mohammed Arif

© Apr 2008 Volume 6 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 64

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Abstract

Customer orientation is vital for success in today's competitive environment. Jaworski and Kohli (1993) proposed a model to measure customer orientation comprising three components: 1) intelligence generation; 2) intelligence dissemination; and 3) organization‑wide responsiveness. This model has been applied in several sectors. This paper applies it to an e‑Government organization of a municipality. To apply the model, semi‑structured interviews were conducted in the organization. Some of the major findings were: 1) an absence of concurrency in the design process; 2) a lack of input in the technology selection; 3) an absence of a knowledge management system for sharing lessons learnt; 4) a reactive nature of the organization; 5) use of different personnel for design and troubleshooting; and 6) a lack of training and standardized procedures. This research accomplishes three major purposes. The first is to elucidate customer orientation, as presented in other disciplines, the second is to elucidate how elements of customer orientation relate to e‑Government, and third one was to demonstrate how customer orientation concepts can be used to suggest improvements in e‑Government Project Management. All three purposes were achieved through the case study presented.

 

Keywords: e-government, IT project management, customer orientation

 

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Journal Article

e‑Governmentality: On Electronic Administration in Local Government  pp39-48

Katarina Giritli Nygren

© Jan 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 122

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Abstract

As a consequence of the advance of information technology into the realm of public administration, we are now faced with a potential increase in efficiency of a scope and power not previously seen. The intentional use of information technology to modernise the public sector goes internationally by the name of e‑Government. While e‑ Government's greatest impact thus far has been to promote customer satisfaction, its guiding spirit is more ambitious, with the fundamental reorganisation of the entire public sector in its sights. The overall purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how public administration at a local authority level adapts to impending e‑Government by considering the discourses that are manifested and how they are used to understand and legitimise electronic administration. The present study uses critical discourse analysis to shed light on those discursive orders that are revealed in the course of deliberations on electronic administration at the local government level. On the one hand, it is possible to see electronic administration as a refinement ‑ and a reform ‑ of a bureaucracy's techniques. On the other hand, it is equally possible to view it in the light of free market ideology.

 

Keywords: e-Government, state management, public sector, critical discourse analysis, public administration, governmentality

 

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