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Journal Article

The Risk of e‑Voting  pp169-178

Thomas W. Lauer

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 3, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp147 - 218

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Abstract

World wide, there are various proposals for automating manual voting processes. This paper considers two different e‑voting schemes, Internet voting and direct recording electronic (DRE) voting systems, explicitly focusing on risk to the integrity of the voting process. Fair elections must assure voter authentication, vote confidentiality and integrity, and the ability to audit the election. E‑voting poses special challenges. The paper analyzes security risks that may threaten e‑voting schemes and makes recommendations.

 

Keywords: Internet voting, e-voting, direct recording electronic voting, IS security, risk analysis, voter fraud

 

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Journal Article

Success Factors of Geneva's e‑Voting System  pp71-78

Michel Chevallier, Michel Warynski, Alain Sandoz

© Dec 2006 Volume 4 Issue 2, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp49 - 94

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Abstract

In eight official votes between January 2003 and April 2005 authorities in Geneva invited up to 90 ,000 citizens to test a remote e‑Voting system as a complement to traditional voting methods. Multidisciplinary teams composed of legal, political, PR, security and computer science specialists, strongly supported by the Government, participated in creating the system which will be appraised by the Geneva Parliament en 2006. This paper reports on the project, its results in terms of numbers and socio‑political profile of e‑Voters, and its success factors. All three authors were directly or indirectly involved in the project from the beginning and are currently working on the deployment of Geneva's e‑ Government platform.

 

Keywords: remote e-voting, direct democracy, project success factors

 

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Journal Article

e‑Voting in the UK: A Work in Progress  pp55-62

Mark Liptrott

© Dec 2006 Volume 4 Issue 2, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp49 - 94

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Abstract

The research project on which this paper is based is investigating the reasons that some English local authorities engaged in pilot projects of e‑voting and some did not. This paper offers a brief summary of the initial findings of the literature review as it identifies factors, which impact upon the decision‑making process of English local authorities. The factors identified include the local authorities' attitude to e‑voting, their consideration of the citizens' attitude to voting, the risks to the integrity of the ballot and the changing political environment instigated by central government. The analysis is based on Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory. Early results of this on‑going research suggest that in a voluntary situation where there is an over arching organisation (central government) trying to introduce an innovation to an agency organisation, Rogers' diffusion of innovations framework requires modification.

 

Keywords: pilot projects, e-voting, local government, central government, diffusion of innovations

 

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Journal Article

Verification and Validation Issues in Electronic Voting  pp117-126

Orhan Cetinkaya, Deniz Cetinkaya

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

Electronic democracy (e‑democracy) is a necessity in this era of computers and information technology. Electronic election (e‑election) is one of the most important applications of e‑democracy, because of the importance of the voters' privacy and the possibility of frauds. Electronic voting (e‑voting) is the most significant part of e‑election, which refers to the use of computers or computerised voting equipment to cast ballots in an election. Due to the rapid growth of computer technologies and advances in cryptographic techniques, e‑voting is now an applicable alternative for many non‑governmental elections. However, security demands become higher when voting takes place in the political arena. Requirement analysis is an important part of the system design process and it is impossible to develop the right system in the right way without a correct and complete set of requirements. In this manner all e‑voting studies mention e‑voting requirements somewhere, and different sets of requirements are defined. Almost all researchers state verifiability as an e‑voting requirement by narrowing the definition of verification. Unfortunately the definitions for verifiability are inadequate and unclear and it is categorised as individual verifiability and universal verifiability, where they are generally misused in the literature. Nowadays the researchers have started to discuss deeply the verification in e‑voting. However there is no obvious consensus about the definitions. Moreover, validation has not been discussed properly yet. This paper focuses on the importance of the verification and validation (V&V) in e‑voting and gives proper definitions for verifiability and validity. Then it describes some V&V activities and explains the relationship between V&V and core requirements that any e‑voting system should satisfy. This paper also states some problems for designing and developing secure e‑voting systems.

 

Keywords: e-voting, e-voting requirements, validation, validity, verifiability, verification

 

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Journal Article

Competent Electronic Participation Channels in Electronic Democracy  pp195-208

Dimitrios Zissis, Dimitrios Lekkas, Anastasia-Evangelia Papadopoulou

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp123 - 208

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Abstract

Electronic Democracy is appearing in political agendas across countries and boarders. This paper refers to electronic participation channels implemented to digitalize decision processes in an electronic democracy. Electronic participation includes the sub processes of information acquisition and formation of an opinion. The function of efficient electronic participation in electronic democracy is crucial and indispensable. Electronic Democracy provides citizens with the opportunity to engage efficiently in democratic processes. Current technology can be perceived as an evolution of traditional communication linkages between political representatives and citizens. These can provide an "extensive library" of information and a "meeting point" for political debate. A surplus of existing technologies provides the means to enhance the unidirectional and bidirectional communication paths between citizens and involved political entities. Such a technological deployment though must meet a number of requirements ranging from usability issues to electronic security. An in depth analysis and review of social and technical requirements of such channels is provided in this paper. Solutions are presented which meet previously identified needs and through their comparison the fulfilment of the requirements will be met. This papers objective is to identify the custom design for efficient and competent electronic participation channels in electronic democracy. This goal will be achieved through a comparison of the current technological tools used in e‑participation, called e‑methods. For each one of these e‑methods a SWOT analysis will be provided, listing the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats, that this particular tool may have. Eventually a comparison is made after the establishment of criteria regarding many aspects such as: security, privacy, accessibility, user's or developer's viewpoints. Proficiently deployed technological infrastructures which enhance the bidirectional communication pathways will lead to engaged and better informed citizens, and evidently to a stronger democracy. Findings of this paper should be considered by parties interested in deploying electronic democracy infrastructures and fellow researchers in the field.

 

Keywords: e-democracy, e-voting, e-participation, e-methods comparison

 

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Journal Article

Practical Aspects of DynaVote e‑Voting Protocol  pp327-338

Orhan Cetinkaya, Mehmet Levent Koc

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp295 - 432

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Abstract

Voting is regarded as one of the most effective methods for individuals to express their opinions on a given topic. Electronic voting (e‑Voting) refers to the use of computers or computerised voting equipments to cast ballots in an election. e‑Voting performed over Internet can be universally accepted in the upcoming years due to the fact that Internet plays a key role in people's lives. The DynaVote e‑Voting protocol claims that it is practical over a network since it does not use complex algorithms and has no physical assumptions such as untappable channels, whereas fulfilling core voting requirements such as privacy, accuracy, uncoercibility and individual verifiability. Software development requires a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, in order to utilise all resources, the prototype implementation gains more importance as it gives quick feedback about the practicality of the system. This paper presents a prototype implementation of DynaVote e‑Voting protocol over the Internet. Since DynaVote relies on Pseudo‑Voter Identity (PVID) scheme, which is an unlinkable pseudo identity mechanism, the prototype includes implementation of a PVID scheme component as well. The main outcome of this study is to prove that DynaVote protocol over Internet is practical and applicable in real life and to illustrate that PVID scheme provides unlinkability. This study also contributes some improvements in DynaVote e‑ voting protocol. Furthermore, this paper analyses how the prototype fulfils some electronic voting system requirements such as efficiency, transparency and mobility.

 

Keywords: DynaVote, e-Voting, electronic voting, implementation, practically, e-Voting requirements

 

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Journal Article

Using Business Process Re‑engineering (BPR) for the Effective Administration of Electronic Voting  pp91-98

Alexandros Xenakis, Ann Macintosh

© Dec 2005 Volume 3 Issue 2, Issue on e-Democracy, Editor: Mary Griffiths, pp59 - 98

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Abstract

This paper proposes the use of Business Process Re‑engineering (BPR) methods and analysis tools to address the issues arising in the implementation of electronic voting. We consider the electoral process as one which has to be re‑designed in order to effectively accommodate e‑Voting technology. We identify the key areas of e‑Voting where the use of BPR can provide beneficial results.

 

Keywords: e-Voting, e-Democracy, e-Government, elections, procedural security, responsibility

 

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Journal Article

e‑Voting: Same Pilots, Same Problems, Different Agendas  pp205-212

Mark Liptrott

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

This paper outlines the preliminary findings of the empirical stage of the research to establish the reasons that in 2003 some English local authorities decided to trial e‑voting and others did not. The key findings demonstrate that central and local governments have different agendas and there is little momentum from central government to increase the number of pilot schemes. The central government policy to introduce e‑voting via voluntary pilot schemes is only providing a limited insight into the problems surrounding the operation of the new voting methods. The findings are derived from comparative semi‑structured interviews with Election Officers from pilot and non‑pilot authorities, and the analysis is based upon Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory framework. The findings illustrate that in the case of e‑voting, central government has not adopted a formal diffusion strategy and that a most influential driver to adopt e‑voting is not prominently acknowledged in diffusion theory. The results suggest that the theory of perceived attributes needs modification and the issue of the diffusion of a public policy should be considered by government earlier in the public policy process.

 

Keywords: e-voting, pilot scheme, public policy process, diffusion

 

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