The Electronic Journal of e-Government aims to publish perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government
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Journal Article

FRAMES — A Risk Assessment Framework for e‑Services  pp21-30

Adrianos Evangelidis

© Jun 2004 Volume 2 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

e‑Government projects are expected to increase efficiency and quality of government services, whilst decreasing the costs. Unfortunately though, together with its perceived positive potential, e‑Government also entails risks. It is expected that the employment of proper risk assessment methods in the management of such projects will reduce the threats imposed by the various risks that surround these projects. This paper discusses about risk in e‑Government and provides a high‑level e‑ Government risk factor classification. Furthermore, this article proposes a novel risk assessment framework for e‑Services in the public administration.

 

Keywords: e-Government, e-Service, Risk, Risk Assessment, Frameworks

 

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Journal Article

The Effectiveness of e‑Service in Local Government: A Case Study  pp157-166

Mehdi Asgarkhani

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Abstract

e‑Technology has become a catalyst for enabling more effective government through better access to services and the democratic process. As public interest in the Internet and e‑Technology solutions continues to grow, there is an increasing expectation that they will be utilised in national and local governments for not only more efficient governance but also improving public access to information and services. This paper, based on a case study discusses some of the key aspects of electronic government and e‑Service. It examines the value and the effectiveness of e‑Services within the public sector with a focus on four specific facets of effectiveness: the view of management and ICT strategists; social, cultural and ethical implications; the implications of lack of access to ICT; and the customers'citizens' view of the usefulness and success of e‑Service initiatives.

 

Keywords: e-Technologies, e-Service, e-Government, e-Readiness, Local Government

 

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Journal Article

Building on Success: The Diffusion of e‑Government in the American States  pp71-82

Hyun Jung Yun, Cynthia Opheim

© Mar 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 82

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine what factors encourage the diffusion of Internet technology, or e‑government, in the American states. Different dimensions of digital technology are examined by investigating the spread of both e‑service and e‑democracy. A longitudinal mixed linear model is used to test the direct effects of states' political, economic, demographic, and ideological factors on the states' efforts to adopt Internet technology over the first seven years of the new millennium. The results indicate that the adoption of Internet technology is a cumulative process; a state's preexisting digitalization is continuously built on progress in expanding the governmental digital services and outreach. States whose leaders are engaged in professional networks are more likely to adopt e‑government. Institutionally powerful governors also encourage the adoption of on‑line technology. The study concludes that the spread of Internet technology in providing services and expanding outreach fits the explanatory analysis of noncontroversial policies that are diffused by a process of emulation. Executive power, leadership, and professional networks reinforce this pattern of emulation.

 

Keywords: e-government, e-service, e-democracy, internet technology, emulation, leadership, professional networks

 

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Journal Article

Mypage and Borger.dk — A Case Study of Two Government Service Web Portals  pp165-176

Karin Furuli, Sigrun Kongsrud

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

This case study investigates the development of national portals offering online public services to citizens. Norway and Denmark are leading the way in developing online public services for citizens. In this study the development of the citizen portals Borger.dk in Denmark and Mypage in Norway will be examined. At present, documented research on national citizen portals is limited. Comparing the similarities and differences of citizen portals is an important part of e‑ government development. We have used a framework for comparing the portals. The research questions to be answered in this case study are; Why are citizen portals created? How does one deal with matters of security? How is portal development organized? This study is also intended to bring to light factors that have led to the differences in the development of Borger.dk and Mypage. The study is based on published and unpublished reports from the two countries in question, together with interviews with key persons. Of additional interest, in conducting this study, is the opportunity to gain greater insight into the development of online services provided by the public sector. This case study also raises further questions relating to e‑government to be used in future research.

 

Keywords: e-government, e-services, framework for comparing citizen portals, citizen portal, online public services, Borgerdk, Mypage

 

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Journal Article

Towards a Framework for eGovernment Development in Nigeria  pp147-160

Darren Mundy, Bandi Musa

© Dec 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEG Conference Issue, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp83 - 235

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Abstract

Globally eGovernment is associated with providing opportunities to increase the connection, availability and modes of interactivity between governance at multiple levels and the citizen. It is also associated with transforming current governmental services in ways to increase efficiencies, improve processes and automate tasks previously undertaken by governmental employees. Growing demands at national government level (often subsidised by public money) and amongst citizen groups across the world lead to a greater focus on the provision of eGovernment services. Often governmental demands for improvements to service clash with citizen requirements. Governments which want to remain relevant to their citizens must take an active role in the implementation of eGovernment. Citizens have witnessed the advances in personalisation of service, accessibility and greater use of technology in the private sector that has created an expansion of innovative ICT solutions and they are now demanding that their governments do the same. This creates an environment where the provision of eGovernment services must be approached with seriousness and with the consideration of the requirements of all stakeholder groups. The aim of this paper is to detail research undertaken to examine the path towards implementation of mature eGovernment services in the country of Nigeria. The research has included a comprehensive benchmarking activity in relation to the content analysis of state government websites in Nigeria and comparison to equivalent provision of council websites in the UK. Following this an eGovernment services requirements survey targeted at citizens was conducted to determine from a citizen perspective the present need for and evaluation of eGovernment services across Nigeria and the UK. In terms of findings, the content analysis demonstrated significant shortcomings with existing state government websites in Nigeria with only 30% of websites analysed providing basic mechanisms for citizens to interact with government services. The analysis of citizen requirements found that amongst those user groups targeted there was a high level of expectation in relation to the provision of eGovernment services and also found that the Nigerian citizens surveyed were more engaged with the benefits that eGovernment could bring to their nation.

 

Keywords: eGovernment framework, eGovernment analysis, citizen requirements, Nigerian eGovernment, e-Services, eGovernment development

 

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Journal Article

Examining the Potential for Channel Shift in the UK Through Multiple Lenses  pp203-213

Darren Mundy, Qasim Umer, Alastair Foster

© Dec 2011 Volume 9 Issue 2, ECEG, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp93 - 222

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Abstract

As we globally enter a period of shifting economic fortunes and austerity measures, public service bodies continue to look to make provision more effective and efficient. In this context, such organisations look at service provision, making judgements on the value, type, and location of such provision. Inevitably questions arise as to whether particular aspects of provision can operate differently or be served through different channels at lower cost (saved either through cost of service or efficiency sa vings from doing things better). Questions arise about whether savings are possible, and what opportunities are offered through revision of service. Citizens are also becoming more demanding over service provision, recognising government wastage and dema nding service reform that best makes use of the public purse. The aim of this paper is to detail research findings from a project designed to discover the scope for channel shift (principally migrating users from mediated to self‑help solutions) within local government services. The research was carried out on behalf of a group consisting of regional and local governmental public bodies including nine councils and the local area police force. The research consisted of four defined stages: identification from within the public sector bodies of scope for shifting provision; collection of case studies related to successful switches of provision; sampling of customer groups in relation to perspectives on changes to provision; and the creation of a framework to support a business case for strategic decision making regarding channel shift. In terms of project findings, within the initial stage of the project there was no shortage of ideas related to the potential for change to provision linked to a channel sh ift. The issue was explored through Customer Service Managers with all identifying services with clear scope for change from the automation of different elements of environmental services, through a more comprehensive linking together of benefits services , to simple customer data collection. However, one of the underlying issues is the lack of accessible management data that can easily be aggregated together to support a business case for provision reform. This initial data provided a starting point for t he discovery of case studies linked to channel shift and service migration. Thirteen case studies were highlighted from the research linked to the areas identified by Customer Service Managers where reform may make a difference. This case study material p rovided a range of information about key benefits and issues with service reform in the identified areas. Following case study identification, customer perceptions on service reform were canvassed (n=197 customers at six locations) through the use of a detailed questionnaire. The results suggest that: there are concerns regarding access to e‑service provision (brought about through either lack of technology or knowledge); that there is a demand for system reform (focused on doing things the right way for the right cost); finally, that at present the most valuable local government service offered on the web is access to local information with this sometimes being difficult to find. In the final stage of the project a business case template was design ed. The business case was to better enable strategic decision making regarding channel shift. The business case is designed to enable the evaluation of requests for service channel growth with critical examination of potential success factors for the shif t of government services. Research around successful case study data also identified cases wherein success had not been achieved. Development and implementation of a business case template should enable teams to develop a better understanding of the poten tial for success or failure and indicate clearly measures needed to best support channel shift occurring.

 

Keywords: eGovernment, channel shift, transformational government, citizen requirements, e-services

 

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Journal Article

Using Classification and Roadmapping techniques for Smart City viabilitys realization  pp326-336

Leonidas Anthopoulos et al

© Dec 2013 Volume 11 Issue 2, ECEG 2013, Editor: Frank Bannister & Walter Castelnovo, pp324 - 388

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Abstract

Abstract: Smart cities suggest a domain that attracts an increasing scientific, political and economic attention. However, this domain is still confusing, since various parties define or apply alternative perspectives. Scientists document a technological smart city evolution from a website form to modern ubiquitous and eco‑friendly ones; city networks describe this phenomenon more likely as a measurement system for intelligence in urban areas; business sector recognizes smart cities as ⠜application boxe s⠀ for information technologies etc. This paper focuses on the abovementioned technological approaches to smart city and realizes that each approach attracted various cases, which later evolved to other forms or declined. To this end, it seeks to answer the following questions: what different technological approaches to smart city exist or have existed and how can they ⠜fit⠀ to market‑driven defined approaches? How have the smart cities evolved? Do particular technology evolution roadmaps exist for smart cities? In order to answer these questions, this paper performs smart city classification, according to the alternative technological approaches that appear in literature and determines representative city cases together with similarities and differ ences among these approaches. Literature review is combined with data from the official websites of the representative cases, which returns groups of e‑services that are being offered by different smart city approaches. These e‑service groups are used to identify evolution roadmaps for smart city that can show how smart cities have emerged and to which particular directions are being evolved. The evolution roadmaps are depicted via the technology roadmapping tool. These roadmaps can become a useful tool f or decision makers, who have to choose between alternative evolution forms and projects that secure smart city⠒s viability. Viability is a crucial parameter for every project, especially due to recent financial recession, since smart cities demand exten sive funding, which significantly affects la

 

Keywords: Keywords: smart cities, technology roadmapping, e-Government, digital cities, e-services, informational cities, viability

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 8 Issue 1 / Mar 2010  pp1‑82

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Editorial

e‑Government is, like many a term in technology before it, suffering from verbal inflation. Actually that is something of an overstatement, terminological proliferation would be a better way of putting it. Now we have e‑governance, t‑government, i‑government, etc. It seems that picking a new letter and sticking it in front of ‘government’ is becoming quite the fashion.

However e‑government is still alive and well and in this issue we have a rich variety of articles covering different aspects of the topic. Joseph Bwayala is (I think) the journal’s first author from Botswana. In his paper he uses the Technology Acceptance Model as a starting point for looking at ways of reducing the risk of failure of e‑government projects in southern Africa and specifically how an adoption model has been used in Zambia and Botswana to foster e‑inclusion. This is a tale of two countries with Botswana having a developed e‑government strategy whilst Zambia is still at a much more basic level with its services. The model he proposes is a complex one and it is interesting to compare it with other models of e‑government acceptance. Of particular interest is the inclusion of local culture in the mix.

Another African country, Uganda, is the locus of Edgar Asiimwe and Nena Lim’s article in which they address another important theme in e‑government research, namely website usability. As they point out, only limited research has yet been done in this area in Africa. As the authors point out, Uganda currently does not score highly on e‑readiness criteria, but there is a steady growth in web usage. Looking at a range of major ministry web sites in the country, the authors consider various aspects of design layout, navigation and legal policies. They use a coding scheme to construct a simple, but effective model for rating each ministry. This is a model which might prove useful to other researchers, especially those in Africa.

There are two papers from Malaysia in this issue, both looking at different problems. Erlane K Ghani and Jamaliah Said look at the use by local authorities in Malaysia of the Web to disclose financial information. The Malaysian government has set itself the target of making Malaysia a fully developed country by 2020. eGovernment is one of a number of pillars in their approach to this. One of their findings is that a factor affecting how local authorities use the Web to disclose financial information is their sense of social obligation. Performance is another factor. Size, it would appear, does not matter. Their research suggests opportunities for others to replicate in different environments and compare what they find with the Malaysian results.

Also in Malaysia, Anna Che Azmi and Ng Lee Bee investigate the factors which affect adoption of e‑filing for taxation. Their approach is based in what has become almost a tradition for acceptance models as their review of the literature shows. They show that for Malaysian taxpayers at least, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and perceived risk all influence the intention to use and usage of the e‑filing system. These findings are in line with those found in other countries and are a useful addition to the growing body of knowledge about user take‑up of on‑line taxation services.

In a different part of the globe, Hyun Jung Yun and Cynthia Opheim analyse the diffusion of e‑government take‑up by the populations of different States of the Union in America. West has shown that there are quite dramatic differences in state e‑government rankings in the USA with the top states achieving double the scores of the weakest. A wide variety of explanations for these discrepancies have been proposed from topography to economic resources. Yun and Opheim suggest that a more useful explanatory factor is emulation and examine four explanatory hypotheses about diffusion: emulation, imitation, citizen demand and accumulation of time. They conclude that leadership is influential and that states will be motivated to copy innovations which they perceive will lead to greater efficiency and cost savings. This gives a greater impetus to reforms.

In terms of the typical EJEG paper, Andrew Power’s article is not in the mainstream, but it is the type of article of which I would like to see more and I invite readers to take up similar themes. Power’s article is about the positioning of ICT in the question of the democratic legitimacy of the European Union. Reflecting on a wide range of ideas, he examines how the EU uses ICT in general and in particular used ICT in the European Parliament elections of 2009. He also examines how our politicians see the role of ICT in democracy at European level. The article provides a rich vein of material for thought, discussion and further research. If any reader would like to pen a response or reflection on it, I would be pleased to consider it.

Finally in this issue, Tony Susanto and Robert Goodwin explore the use of short messaging service (SMS) technology by government. Despite the enormous popularity of this technology, the authors point out that there has as yet been no significant study of its use as an e‑ (or more accurately m‑) government tool. Using a multinational telephone survey which threw up some intriguing findings including that perceived efficiency in time and distant was the second most influential factor in take‑up after perceived ease of use, the authors observe that this suggests that citizens are cost conscious about such services. Another interesting finding (which may have wider implications) is that people like SMS because they perceive that they are dealing with people; they do not like talking to machines. There are other findings in their work, too many to summarise here, but this article also provides a trove of further research possibilities.

 

Keywords: acceptance factors, adoption model, Botswana, cyberparliament, democratic deficit, digital reporting, eConsultation, e-democracy, e-filing, e-Government, emulation, e-service European Union, feature inspection method, internet technology, leadership, legitimacy, local authorities, Malaysia, perceived risk, policies, professional networks, public services, SADC, Six Level model of SMS-based e-government, SMS, taxation, technology acceptance model, technology adoption, Uganda, users’ behaviour, web usability, websites, Zambia

 

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