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Journal Article

e‑Government Website Accessibility: In‑Depth Evaluation of Saudi Arabia and Oman  pp149-156

Abdulmohsen Abanumy, Ali Al-Badi, Pam Mayhew

© Dec 2005 Volume 3 Issue 3, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp99 - 156

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Abstract

This paper explores three main areas, firstly, website accessibility guidelines; secondly, website accessibility tools and finally the implication of human factors in the process of implementing successful e‑Government websites. It investigates the issues that make a website accessible and explores the importance placed on web usability and accessibility with respect to e‑Government websites. It briefly examines accessibility guidelines, evaluation methods and analysis tools. It then evaluates the web accessibility of e‑Government websites of Saudi Arabia and Oman by adapting the 'W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines'. Finally, it presents recommendations for improvement of e‑Government website accessibility.

 

Keywords: Accessibility guidelines, tools, e-Government, web style guide, web testing and evaluation and assistive technology

 

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Journal Article

The Accessibility of Moroccan Public Websites : Evaluation of Three E‑Government Websites  pp65-79

Ibtissam Boussarhan, Najima Daoudi

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 94

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Abstract

Abstract: Enabling people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, contribute, create content and interact with the Web is the purpose of Web accessibility. The present research aims to evaluate the accessibility of three Moroccan e‑government websites to people with disabilities. To achieve the realization of this research, we opted for the method AccessiWeb and we analyzed, following this methodology, four to seven pages in each website. The evaluation results show the presence of several p roblems of accessibility in each of the three websites. Some accessibility problems, found in the three websites, are relating to level A criteria, other to level AA criteria, while the rest is relating to level AAA criteria. The presence of level A crite ria that are not respected, in the three websites, makes us conclude that the three evaluated websites don┬Ét meet the minimum level of accessibility. To reach the minimum level of accessibility, recommended by the W3C, all problems relating to level A and level AA criteria should be corrected. Various measures should be then taken to make the content of these websites perceivable, operable, understandable by users and robust. Thus, to make the content perceivable by users, the necessary measures to be ta ken can be summarized as follows : provide text equivalents for non‑textual items, increase the contrast ratio, make time‑based media clearly identifiable, provide summaries and titles for tables, make all links explicit, indicate changes of reading direc tion in the source code, organize the content by the use of titles, use CSS, associate form fields with relevant labels, offer accessible versions to documents for download and make it possible for users to control flashing contents. To make the content p resented within the three websites operable, it is necessary to : make the control of time‑based media and no time‑based media possible by the keyboard, give pertinent titles for links and web pages, make explicit links that open in a new window, add link s that help to bypass the blocks of content and the groups of links, provide information about the documents for download, ensure that navigation does not contain keyboard traps and that the sitemap page shows the general architecture of the website. Conc erning the third principle, which consists on making the content understandable by users, context changes should be initiated by explicit buttons, language changes should be indicated in the source code, the labels associated with form fields should be ap pended with their fields, the indication of mandatory fields should be visible and the input control should be accompanied by suggestions that facilitate the correction of errors. Finally, the respect of the last principle, relating to robust content, req uires to provide for each framework used a relevant title, to provide equivalent alternatives, working without Java, for scripts, to correct errors that exist in the source code, to make all media compatible with assistive technologies, to define the type of each document, to make sure that hidden texts are correctly rendered by assistive technologies and to provide an appropriate title for each form button.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Web accessibility, e-government websites, Moroccan websites, Moroccan e-government, persons with disability, Web accessibility evaluation, AccessiWeb method, Web accessibility evaluation methodologies, Web accessibility evaluation tools

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 3 Issue 3 / Nov 2005  pp99‑156

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Keywords: electronic journal, papers, articles, eGovernment, electronic government, eGovernment methods, eGovernment studies, e-Government, Accessibility guidelines, Administration, Administrative workflows, Benchmarking, Citizen interaction, Country case study, Diffusion, Digital divide, e-Government, e-Procurement, Institutions, Internet access, Inter-organizational systems, Legal constraints, Measuring e-Government, Municipalities, Mutual aid, Non-conforming case, Policy, Public process modeling, Public sector, Slovenia, Tools, Web style guide, Web testing and evaluation and assistive technology

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 3 Issue 4 / Dec 2005  pp157‑240

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Keywords: electronic journal, papers, articles, eGovernment, electronic government, eGovernment methods, eGovernment studies, e-Government, Accessibility guidelines, Administration, Administrative workflows, Benchmarking, Citizen interaction, Country case study, Diffusion, Digital divide, e-Government, e-Procurement, Institutions, Internet access, Inter-organizational systems, Legal constraints, Measuring e-Government, Municipalities, Mutual aid, Non-conforming case, Policy, Public process modeling, Public sector, Slovenia, Tools, Web style guide, Web testing and evaluation and assistive technology

 

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